20 de dez de 2013

International Water Association - Water Safety Plan


A SETRI passa a ser associada da IWA, com o objetivo de participar cada vez mais da divulgação e trabalhos com o tema PLANO DE SEGURANÇA DA ÁGUA (Water Safety Plan).

19 de dez de 2013

LEGIONELLA PERIGO CONSTANTE AGORA LEGIONELLA LONGBEACHAE



Spike in cases sparks public health warning

A SUDDEN surge in legionella cases has triggered a SA Health warning for people to take care with potting mix as they freshen up the garden for Christmas.
There have been 12 cases of Legionella longbeachae notified to SA Health since the beginning of November, a marked increase from the usual two per month.
SA Health chief medical officer Professor Paddy Phillips said Legionella longbeachae are bacteria that can infect the lungs and cause pneumonia.
"As the weather warms up more and more people will be out and about in the garden, handling soil, fertilisers and compost, which are a common breeding grounds for Legionella longbeachae," Professor Phillips said.
"People can become infected when they breathe in the dust or the bacteria can spread from hand to mouth contact.
"Much like its relative Legionella pneumophila, which causes Legionnaires' Disease, Legionella longbeachae can cause pneumonia with symptoms including fever, cough, chest pain, breathlessness and diarrhoea.
"The current increase in cases is occurring mostly among people aged over 40 whose main risk factor for acquiring the disease is handling potting mix and compost.
"If you are handling garden mixes, such as potting mix, mulches, composts or other garden mixtures, there are a number of things you can do to minimise your exposure to the Legionella bacteria."
The include:
READ the warning labels on bagged mixes and follow the instructions
WEAR a face mask and gloves to reduce your risk of infection
OPEN bagged mixes in a well-ventilated space
AVOID inhaling airborne particles such as dusts or mists
AVOID hand-to-mouth contact
MOISTEN the garden mix to avoid inhaling airborne particles
ALWAYS wash your hands after using garden mixes, even if you wear gloves
In 2012 there were 23 cases of Legionella longbeachae infection notified to SA Health.
Antibiotic treatment may be prescribed by the treating medical practitioner. Some cases may require admission to hospital.

11 de dez de 2013

PLANO DE SEGURANÇA DA ÁGUA É OBRIGATÓRIO? PORTARIA 2914


A SETRI já está auxiliando várias empresas a terem seu Plano de Segurança da Água, conforme as orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde e atendendo o requisito legal da Portaria 2914.
Maiores detalhes sobre o PSA que a SETRI desenvolveu para as Indústrias e Edificações, consulte nosso site:

www.setri.com.br


4 de dez de 2013

28 de nov de 2013

Woman Seeks $5 Million after Contracting Legionnaires’ disease

Cinnaminson, NJ, November 27, 2013
Last month, Alabama’s ABC 33/40 published a report about a local woman filing a lawsuit against the owners of a motel in Kentucky. The woman claims she got Legionnaires’ disease at the hotel from a contaminated air conditioning unit.  She is seeking $5 million.
Legionnaires’ disease is caused by a type of bacteria known as Legionella. The bacteria are found naturally in the environment, usually in water.  People get Legionnaires’ disease when they breathe in an aerosolized mist containing the bacteria. Outbreaks have been associated with hot tubs, cooling towers, hot water tanks, plumbing systems and decorative fountains in the past.

25 de nov de 2013

Philadelphia school worker contracted Legionnaires' disease

Legionella. (Source: https://wwwn.cdc.gov)


A maintenance worker for the Philadelphia School District is home recovering from a serious bout with Legionnaires' disease, after being treated at a hospital earlier this month.

The man worked recently on air conditioning units at McKinley Elementary School in North Philadelphia and Martin Luther King High School in Germantown, the district said in a statement today, adding that no other cases of the potentially deadly type of pneumonia — contracted from bacteria in stagnant water — have been reported.
"The Philadelphia Department of Public Health [PDPH] advised the District that the employee, whose identity was withheld, worked near cooling towers at Martin Luther King High School and McKinley Elementary School," the district said in a statement. "No other cases were reported as related to the schools. At this time, there is no indication that the employee contracted the disease at a District facility."
A message left for the worker through a friend was not immediately returned this afternoon. A friend said he was home recovering but would likely be out of work for a bit longer after suffering from what doctors described to him as a very bad bout of pneumonia.
The district had tests done at both schools to find out if any more of the bacteria behind the disease was detected, but the results were not yet known.
"Although it was not required by PDPH, the District tested potential Legionella sources (i.e., cooling tower and HVAC components) at both schools as a precaution. We are awaiting final results," the district said.
The school year in Philadelphia begins Monday, Sept. 9/13

22 de nov de 2013

U.S. Attorney: No Federal Charges Warranted in Legionella Outbreak

The U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania says he does not think charges are warranted in relation to the deadly Legionella out break at the Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System.
Twenty-two veterans who were treated in 2011 and 2012 at the Pittsburgh VA were sickened by Legionella.  Five of them died.
U.S. Attorney David Hickton called the situation “tragic” but feels no charges should be filed by his office.
“The investigation has been a high priority of my office and federal law enforcement for the last nine months,” Hickton said in a written statement. “It must be noted that our jurisdiction is limited to determining if any federal criminal statutes were violated.”
The investigation focused on whether there was evidence of any “material false statements” or attempts to obstruct justice by VA officials. It did not look at how patients contracted the disease.
Hickton says the investigation included about 30 interviews with individuals ranging from top administrators to maintenance workers and outside contractors.
Beyond that, the statements said, “The investigative team analyzed and reviewed more than 250,000 internal VA emails. They studied volumes of records, including logbooks of maintenance performed on the systems used to combat the Legionella bacteria and purchase orders for parts related to such maintenance. Test results were examined, along with the detailed reports of the Centers for Disease Control and the Health Inspection Division of the OIG.”
Michael Moreland was the regional administrator overseeing operations at the Pittsburgh VA at the time of the outbreak. He has since retired and has been temporarily replaced by Gary W. Devansky.
It is possible that the U.S. Attorney’s office could once again become involved in the case.
“While the federal criminal investigation has concluded, consideration of the many issues raised by this tragic event will surely continue in other forums,” Hickton said. “If any new or additional evidence emerges, today’s assessment does not prevent the U.S. Attorney’s Office from reviewing such evidence and reopening the investigation if the facts warrant.”

VA hospital taking steps to mitigate bacteria


Posted: Thursday, November 21, 2013 11:25 pm

CLARKSBURG — In response to Legionella bacteria being found in the Louis A. Johnson VA Medical Center, the center will be hyperchlorinating their water system beginning today, authorities said.
Wesley Walls, public affairs officer for the VA medical center, said officials are taking active steps to monitor the water system to ensure its safety for the veterans, employees, visitors, and volunteers. This is considered the Veterans Affairs Department’s recommended process for eliminating Legionella, he said. At the recent Clarksburg-Harrison Board of Health meeting, Administrator Chad Bundy stated that since the levels of bacteria were low, the incident did not need to be reported to the EPA. Dick Welch, general manager of the Clarksburg Water Board, said the bacteria problem is restricted to the VA facility itself.

21 de nov de 2013

Phigenics To Deliver Ongoing Smart Water Management Services To VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System

NAPERVILLE, Ill., Nov. 20, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System has recently selected Phigenics, LLC, to provide ongoing smart water management services for its facilities. 
This partnership is part of an ongoing and successful collaboration between Phigenics and one of the nation's largest VA medical centers. For the last six months, Phigenics has worked with VA Pittsburgh to develop one of the most rigorous facility water surveillance and management programs in the country. To date, and as a direct result of these aggressive risk-reduction strategies, VA Pittsburgh has not identified a case of health-care acquired Legionella pneumonia in more than one year.
"Phigenics smart water management services delivered to VA Pittsburgh are based on the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) process," said Tony Dallmier, Ph.D., Regional Manager for Phigenics. "VA Pittsburgh has very complex water systems across its health care campuses. Phigenics worked with a cross functional Water Management Team at VA Pittsburgh to fully develop, complete and implement the HACCP program, which was customized to meet the health care system's unique needs. VA Pittsburgh is now successfully implementing this evidence-based and scientific program and collaborating with Phigenics to validate and verify that the program is working effectively."
"Phigenics works with many of the leading brands in healthcare, hospitality and retail delivering industry best practices in water management," said Bill McCoy, Ph.D., Chief Technology Officer of Phigenics. "After working with VA Pittsburgh now for over six months, I am very pleased to report that VA Pittsburgh is implementing best practices for preventing disease from waterborne pathogens in building water systems. They are also now establishing a strong role as a leader in healthcare building water system management. We look forward to working with them on an ongoing basis to ensure their water is safe and that the veterans receiving their healthcare services are properly protected."
Between 8,000 and 18,000 people are hospitalized with Legionnaires' disease in the U.S. each year and death can occur in 5 to 30 percent of cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment, usually in warm water. The World Health Organization estimates the number of annual cases in Europe at around 10,000 and the total global number of cases is not currently known.

Phigenics sempre foi um grande parceira da SETRI 

18 de nov de 2013

SETRI - Philadelphia - Legionella



No edifício onde ocorreu o caso da Legionella em Julho de 1976, possui no seu interior uma fonte decorativa.
Pois bem, isso pode ser um local de grande risco para um novo surto de Legionella e ainda mais sendo no local onde tudo teve início.
Achei que tinham aprendido algo sobre a bactéria Legionella.
Fonte decorativa é um risco.
Mas fiquei surpreso em saber onde esta fonte está localizada.
Edifício BELLEVUE na Philadelphia.

17 de nov de 2013

SETRI - Philadelphia - Legionella

Estamos na Philadelphia e fomos visitar o edifício onde tudo começou com a Legionella.
Hoje o Hotel é o Hyatt e existem escritórios no edifício.
Sem dúvida para nos que realizamos trabalhos com a Legionella a mais de 15 anos foi algo muito especial estar neste local.
As pessoas que se contaminaram estavam neste edifício e na rua, o que nos traz lembranças bem marcantes.
Compartilho com vocês este momento.






14 de nov de 2013

Two get Legionnaires' Disease at Naperville fitness club




Two people contracted Legionnaires' Disease from a hot tub at an LA Fitness in Naperville, according to a report by WBBM.
The Mayo Clinic website describes Legionnaires' Disease as a severe form of pneumonia cause by a bacterium known as legionella. Legionella is the same bacteria health authorities found in the hot tub at the fitness center on Freedom Drive.

http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/suburbs/naperville_lisle/chi-gyms-hot-tub-blamed-for-2-cases-of-legionnaires-20131114,0,4818977.story

SETRI 5 ANOS



A SETRI completa 5 anos.
Realizamos um grande sonho e sem dúvida só poderia acontecer com a confiaça e credibilidade que nossos CLIENTES depositaram em nosso trabalho.
Me sinto orgulhoso de poder compartilhar esta alegria com todos amigos que também fazem parte de sucesso.
Um grande obrigado:

NESTLÉ
NESTLÉ DPA
NESTLÉ CPW
NESTLÉ WATER
PURINA
CHOCOLATES GAROTO
NESTLÉ URUGUAY
CSN
BASF
HBO
LONZA
TIVIT
SESC SP
PROMINENT
CLARIANT
VEOLIA
DALKIA
HSBC
SANTANDER
SOFITEL GUARUJÁ
CUSHMAN & WAKEFIELD
 e aos nossos
AMIGOS

8 de nov de 2013

IV Seminário de Monitoramento e Rastreabilidade na Indústria de Alimentos - ITAL Campinas


A SETRI estará presente com a palestra:

Programa de Monitoramento da água utilizada pelas indústrias de alimentos

http://www.ital.sp.gov.br/ccqa/eventos/2013/monitoramento_rastreabilidade/programa.php

LEGIONELLA

Unknown3 photo (specialty vacuums commercial hvac maintenance and efficiency facility maintenance 2 cooling tower maintenance )Our headline says it all: Legionella, which causes a lung infection called Legionnaires’ disease, is back with a vengeance.
Probably one of the worst cases occurred in August when at least six residents of a Reynoldsburg, Ohio retirement community died due to an outbreak of the illness.
During that month, there were 39 cases linked to the retirement community, and those affected included residents, visitors and one employee, according to The Columbus Dispatch.
Testing confirmed the bacteria was in an air-conditioning cooling tower, and in the water used for drinking, showering and cooking.
The investigators were not sure what caused the legionella growth, but drinking and showering activities were restricted until the problem was resolved.
As the presence of legionella bacteria in air conditioning systems, hot water tanks, plumbing systems and cooling towers can lead to outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease.
In August, legionella was also discovered in a cooling tower on the Carnegie Mellon University campus.
Legionnaires’ disease is often most detrimental to the elderly or others with compromised immune systems. Complications from the disease can result in respiratory issues and kidney failure, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In another case, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette reports that four prisoners at the Pennsylvania state prison contracted Legionnaires’ disease; tests confirmed the legionella was present in the prison’s cooling towers.
Whenever legionella growth does occur, it’s often attributed to accumulated algae, mold or bacteria within a dirty cooling tower mixing with the tower’s warm water; the combination is a perfect environment for bacterial growth.
The system in which the bacteria grow can aerosolize the bacteria into the air, infecting occupants and spreading the disease.


7 de nov de 2013

Legionnaires disease confirmed cause of death of Lake County infant

LAKE COUNTY

 There's something in the water and it's responsible for taking the life of Ryland Joseph.
"Don't use the shower," a doctor told Kellie and Rodd Joseph, "there's a bug in the water." Those are the words that haunt the Joseph family every day.
Court documents filed on Oct. 23 state that the University of California San Francisco Medical Center and Benoiff Children's Hospital knew that the building's water system was contaminated with legionella bacteria, including the drinking water, sinks, bathtubs, showers and bone marrow transplant unit.
Legionella bacteria is found in water molecules when the water in is an aerosol form when released in places such as showers, sinks, steam rooms, hot tubs, swamp coolers or misters.
"We needed answers," Rodd said. "And now we need to let other people know. The hospital did not do enough to keep us safe, given their prior knowledge. This should not happen to anyone else ever again."

31 de out de 2013

Sustentabilidade GBCB 2007


Super legal relembrar o começo de uma grande jornada.
Como estamos agora ????

http://www.setri.com.br/?page_id=9

30 de out de 2013

Six Legionnaires' disease cases tied to Lehigh County outpatient center

Six people sickened, possibly by tainted fountain water



Read more: http://www.mcall.com/news/breaking/mc-lehigh-county-legionairres-outbreak-20131030,0,3773533.story#ixzz2jEs7E7KJ


In a statement, health department press secretary Aimee Tysarczyk said the department was limited in the information it could share because of restrictions under the Disease Prevention and Control Law regarding continuing investigations.
She encouraged people with concerns to consult a doctor.
"It's important for the public to know that legionella is commonly found in various places in the environment and cases occur all the time throughout the state," Tysarczyk wrote. "Legionnaire's is a reportable disease in Pennsylvania, which means health care facilities, health care practitioners and clinical laboratories are required to report it to the Department of Health within 24 hours and thereafter we will investigate those reports which involves asking a series of questions including where the individual has recently been."
Finding a location common to patients does not necessarily mean the location is the source of the disease, the statement said, so the department has to expand its inquiry beyond that common denominator.
Tysarczyk said IHC had been cooperative and followed appropriate measures to assist with the investigation, and the health department had followed traditional protocols by issuing an alert to health care professional.
The alert urges vigilance about reporting potential cases so the department can follow-up and investigate, Tysarczyk wrote.
IHC's statement said the fountain in the lobby of the 250 building and the fountain outside the lobby were shut down and drained. The results of tests on the water are pending. The facility's drinking water system was also sanitized, though it was not considered a likely source of the infection.
The health department conducted its own inspection, taking water samples on Friday.


Greenbuild Congress - USGBC - Philadelphia


A SETRI vai estar presente neste importante evento em Novembro.

7 de out de 2013

Casos de Legionella um alerta

Casos como o reportado a seguir ocorre em todo o mundo. No Brasil casos existem e não são reportados, mas temos os mesmos problemas que existem em todo o mundo quando se fala de LEGIONELLA.

Spike in Legionellosis disease in Garden City

By: Scarlett Cvitanovich, | Latest Christchurch News | Monday October 7 2013 9:45

Christchurch may be pleasantly known as the Garden City, but the name isn't as rosy as it first appears.
There were eight reported cases of the potentially fatal Legionellosis disease in September, compared to just one in August.
Medical Officer of Health Dr Alistair Humphrey says the disease is more prevalent in the city because more people get out in their gardens.
"When we get into our gardens in the spring time we always see a spike in the number of people brought into hospital with Legionella pneumonia.
"And that's because they've caught it from their potting mix or their compost in their gardens."
Alistair Humphrey says people can avoid the disease by using precautions around potting mix, such as wearing a mask and washing their hands after use.
Photo: Stock.xchng

2 de out de 2013

Legionella Bacteria Found in Compost Products


A study conducted at the University of Strathclyde investigating the presence of Legionella in compost, has found that the bacteria exist in a significant number of commercial products. The research, the first substantial analysis of Legionella in UK composts, suggests that the bacteria are a common part of the microflora found within the composts tested. It is widely recognized that Legionella bacteria are commonly present in the environment and the researchers have found that compost could be a potential source of infection.
Dr. Tara K. Beattie, of the University of Strathclyde's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, says, "Disease causing micro-organisms are widespread in the environment, and therefore it is not too surprising that species of Legionella that can cause human disease are present in compost.
Any environment where you have pathogenic bacteria could be a source of infection, and we already know that compost has been linked to human Legionella infection in countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Within the UK and across Europe composts have traditionally been composed of peat, whereas sawdust and bark are more often used to produce compost in Australia and New Zealand where Legionellosis associated with compost is more common. It may be that the change in composition of composts in the UK, moving away from peat based products, could be resulting in species such as Legionella longbeachae being present in compost and therefore more cases of infection could occur."
The study was conducted by Beattie, fellow academic Dr. Charles Knapp, Strathclyde PhD student Sandra Currie and Dr. Diane Lindsay of the Scottish Haemophilus, Legionella, Meningococcus and Pneumococcus Reference Laboratory.
Twenty-two different brands of compost, commercially available in the UK, were examined for the presence of Legionella bacteria – 14 of those tested contained a variety of Legionella species. Some of the species found, for example Legionella longbeachae which was present in four brands, are known to have caused human disease.
Beattie notes, "A larger scale survey, covering a wider range of compost products is required to determine if these organisms, some disease causing, some not, are as widespread in composts as this initial study would suggest. It should be emphasized though, that although Legionella seem to be common in compost, human infection is very rare, especially if you consider the volume of compost sold and used. But with any potential source of infection precautions should always be taken. The occurrence of these bacteria in composts in Australia and New Zealand, and the cases of infection that have been traced to compost has resulted in hygiene warnings on compost packaging in these countries, and this is something manufacturers in the UK may wish to consider."

The paper, "Legionella spp. in UK composts – a potential public health issue," has been published by Clinical Microbiology and Infection.

Potentially deadly legionella bacteria is discovered in bags of compost

Potentially deadly legionella bacteria has been found in bags of compost.
Tests on 22 brands of compost available in the UK found that 14 contained a variety of Legionella bugs.
Four showed evidence of Legionella longbeachae, which can cause serious infections leading to admission to hospital or death.
Last month, health experts recommended putting warning labels on compost bags after a spate of Legionella longbeachae infections in Scotland.
Five people have been affected since the outbreak began in August. The latest victim was being treated in hospital in Dundee two weeks ago.


24 de set de 2013

Palestra SETRI sobre a Legionella em Sintra Portugal - GRUNDFOS








Palestra SETRI sobre Legionella em Portugal

Nos dias 23 e 24 de setembro a SETRI participou de um grande evento em Cintra, Portugal onde o tema foi a bactéria LEGIONELLA.
No evento patrocinado pela GRUNDFOS, contou com a presença de vários profissionais do Governo, Hotelaria, Hospitais, etc..., que trabalham diretamente com a bactéria Legionella.
As apresentações foram desde a legislação em Portugal até métodos usados para minimizar os efeitos da Legionella.
A maior diferença entre Portugal e o Brasil é que em Portugal a Doença do Legionário é uma doença notificável e já existem normas e leis sobre o tema.
A troca de informações foi excelente e o público participante teve uma excelente impressão do trabalho da SETRI sobre a Legionella, principalmente o uso do Plano de Segurança da Água que a SETRI desenvolveu para Edificações e Indústrias, que inclui os problemas da água para ingestão, inalação e contato.















20 de set de 2013

Another Case of Legionella Longbeachae in Tayside

A fifth case of Legionella Longbeachae has been identified by the NHS Tayside, which is linked to gardening compost. According to the NHS, the case is making steady progress.
Two patients have been discharged after treatment and the other two are being treated in intensive care after falling ill with Legionella Longbeachae in Lothians last week.

19 de set de 2013

PLANO DE SEGURANÇA DA ÁGUA - PORTARIA 2914





http://www.setri.com.br/?page_id=35

Fifth person diagnosed with Legionella linked to gardening compost - Legionella Longbeachae



A fifth person has been diagnosed with Legionella longbeachae linked to gardening compost.
On Friday, NHS Lothian announced four people within the Lothians had been diagnosed with the disease. Two are still being treated in intensive care and the other two have been discharged.
On Wednesday, Health Protection Scotland's (HPS) said a further case had been confirmed in the NHS Tayside area and they are being treated at Ninewells Hospital.
Legionella longbeachae is a rare strain of the disease and not contagious but is contracted from commercial growing material and other composted material like bark and sawdust. Patients have flu-like symptoms which can progress to pneumonia.
The Lothian outbreak is thought to have come from gardening compost and an investigation is under way to find out the source of the bacteria. In the meantime, gardeners are being warned to take precautions when working with composted materials.
Dr. Martin Donaghy, Medical Director from HPS said: "Following the identification of five cases of an unusual form of legionnaires’ disease in Lothian and Tayside, Health Protection Scotland is co-ordinating an incident management team to investigate this issue.
"It is believed that the four cases from NHS Lothian and the one case from NHS Tayside have arisen from the Legionella longbeachae strain found in compost and potting materials. This is an uncommon but recognised international phenomenon.
"While the risk of becoming unwell from gardening activities (such as working with compost) remains very low, we would recommend good hygiene in relation to gardening – wearing gloves, wearing a mask if dusty, particularly indoors, and washing hands immediately after use.
"We also advise that people should open any compost or potting mix bags carefully in a well ventilated area and if possible using a safety blade. Keep the door open in greenhouses or sheds when potting-up plants or filling hanging baskets. Finally, if you are going to smoke while gardening, please wash your hands before doing so."
On Wednesday, a meeting was held between HPS, NHS Lothian and the City of Edinburgh Council as the investigation continues.


SETRI no Congresso Combating Legionella & Water Treatment 2013


http://www.setri.com.br/artigos/16_congresso_Legionella.pdf


18 de set de 2013

PVT análise da Legionella - FEBRAVA 2013


O processo analítico Phigenics Validation Test (PVT) recebeu o selo ABRAVA destaque inovação na FEBRAVA 2013.

17 de set de 2013

Combating Legionella & Water Treatment 2013

A SETRI está participando deste importante evento em Birmingham UK, onde estão sendo discutidos os últimos temas da regulamentação da Legionella, inovações, pesquisas e sem dúvida o processo de avaliação de risco, já utilizado pela SETRI na América Latina.
Vamos defender sempre o Plano de Segurança da Água (Water Safety Plan) como uma das maiores ferramentas para minimizar o risco da Legionella.
http://www.setri.com.br/?page_id=35




16 de set de 2013

Bid to find source of Lothians legionella outbreak - LEGIONELLA LONGBEACHAE


FRANTIC efforts are today ongoing to unravel the mystery of a rare legionella bug that has left four Lothian gardeners critically ill in intensive care.

Experts from across the globe are being consulted in a bid to understand how legionella longbeachae, which is found in compost, has come to strike in the region so suddenly.
In the last five years, fewer than ten cases of legionella longbeachae have been discovered in Scotland, yet it has hit four people in the Lothians in a short space of time.
The victims, aged between 62 and 84, are based in Edinburgh city, West Lothian and Midlothian and no link, other than them all being gardeners, has yet been established.
Two have been discharged from hospital but the others remain seriously unwell and are in intensive care at the Capital’s Royal Infirmary.
Experts are investigating whether soil contaminated with the bug, which is common in Australia, came from a single location originally.
Professor Alison McCallum, NHS Lothian’s director of public health and public 
policy, admitted that experts had not yet been able to establish a source. “We really can’t say whether these cases are directly linked as we haven’t yet completed our investigation,” she said. “They are linked to gardening, that’s what these people have in common.”
Gardeners are being 
advised not to give up their hobby, but to protect themselves against the strain, which can be fatal.
The fact that it is found in compost is particularly dangerous as gardening is traditionally popular with older people who are more likely to have other health conditions, making them particularly vulnerable to legionella.
It cannot be passed from person to person, but is inhaled by breathing in tiny dust particles or very small drops of water. While the outbreak is not linked in any way to the Edinburgh legionnaires disease crisis last year, many of the same techniques are being used in lines of inquiry.
All of the gardeners had purchased different products containing compost prior to becoming unwell and samples of compost have been sent to laboratories for testing.
NHS Lothian offered assurances that the risk to the wider public is low.
Prof McCallum added: “Because this is so rare we are working with experts in this particular area to try to get to the bottom of it and we would seek advice from our colleagues internationally.
“Our basic advice is not to give up gardening but be alert and be safe.”
The four cases have all been reported over the last two months.