26 de set de 2012

Alguns casos de Legionella

Blaines, Spain, Sept. 2012
As of late September, a total of 11 males and 3 females ranging from 47 to 82 years of age have contracted Legionnaires' in Blaines, Spain. Several patients were hospitalized but responded well to treatment.
Major Outbreak in Quebec City, July-Sept 2012
A total of 180 people contracted Legionnaires' disease from July through mid September, 13 of whom have died. A cooling tower at an office building was declared by authorities to be the source of the outbreak based on finding identical Legionella strains in the tower and several patients.
Chicago hotel, July-Aug 2012
Ten people who visited or stayed at a downtown Chicago hotel between mid-July and mid-August contracted Legionnaires' disease, three of whom have since died. A decorative fountain in the hotel's main lobby is the suspected source.
Stoke-on-Trent, England, hot tub, 19 cases, July 2012
Investigators believe that a hot tub in a store is the probable source of a Legionnaires' outbreak in Stoke-on-Trent based on water test results and epidemiologic evidence. As of today, 19 cases have been confirmed, 8 patients are still hospitalized, and one person has died.
Major outbreak in Scotland, May-July 2012
Between the end of May and mid July, a total of 101 confirmed or suspected cases of Legionnaires' disease were identified in Edinburgh. Three men who had underlying health conditions have died. The investigators suspected a cooling tower in a densely populated area of the city but have not been able to confirm a source.
Restaurant in Spain, 25 cases, June 2012
Based on epidemiologic evidence, investigators determined a restaurant in Mostoles (near Madrid) to be the probable source of 12 confirmed and 13 possible cases of Legionnaires' disease that occurred in late June. The 18 men and 7 women ranged from 35 to 87 years of age. The restaurant was allowed by authorities to remain open for business. The report did not mention a suspected water system.
Auckland, New Zealand, 16 Cases, Feb-May 2012
Sixteen cases of Legionnaires' disease have been identified in Auckland, New Zealand since late February. Two persons have died, both of whom had underlying illness. Because the outbreak was widely dispersed and the investigators had no obvious links, the Auckland Regional Public Health Service issued a press release asking operators of commercial and industrial buildings to shock dose cooling towers. More than 600 cooling towers were disinfected. A definite link between cooling towers and the outbreak has not been established.
Hotel in Spain, 14 Cases, 3 Deaths, Jan-Feb 2012
A four-star hotel in Calpe was temporarily closed and its water systems disinfected after Legionnaires' disease was reported in several guests. A total of 14 cases have been identified. At least nine persons were hospitalized and three have died. The deaths occurred on January 26 and 31 and February 2.
Hotel in Albany, NY, 6 Cases, Sept-Dec 2011
Laboratory tests confirmed Legionnaires' disease in six persons who had stayed at the same hotel in Albany, NY between September and December. All six have recovered. Legionella was found in the hotel's plumbing system, which was to be flushed on February 5th. An additional two cases were identified in guests who stayed at the same hotel in May 2012. The hotel voluntarily closed after those cases were reported.
Hotel in Las Vegas, 3 Cases, 2011 and 2012
Legionnaires' disease was confirmed in three people who stayed at a resort in Las Vegas. The first two cases were reported in Spring 2011; both recovered. The third case, reported January 2012, has died. According to the Southern Nevada Health District, Legionella was not found in water samples collected after the first two cases were reported but was found in samples tested last month. A hotel spokesperson said the water systems were superheated and hyperchlorinated immediately after the water test results were reported. Sources: 8newsnow.com and huffingtonpost.com
Travelers to Greece, 9 cases, Aug.-Oct. 2011 Nine cases of LD have been identified in the UK among people who had traveled to the Greek island Corfu since August. UK and Greek public health officials are investigating potential sources in both the UK and Corfu.
Pittsburgh nursing homes, 10 cases, Sept. 2011 In September the Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) Health Department initiated an investigation of the domestic water systems in two nursing homes where a total of 10 cases of Legionnaires' disease were identified. Three of the cases required hospitalization but no deaths were reported. Source: pittsburghlive.com.
Hotel in Ocean City, MD, 3 cases, Sept. 2011
A hotel in Ocean City, Maryland relocated its guests to other Ocean City hotels and closed early for the season, on September 29th, after the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) reported three cases of Legionnaires' disease among people who had stayed there. Each of the three cases developed Legionnaires' symptoms about a week after their stay at the hotel and were hospitalized.
Hamilton, Ontario, 4 cases, Aug.-Sept. 2011Health officials are investigating four cases of Legionnaires' disease, the first of which was reported in mid August and the other three since Sept. 22, to determine whether there is a common source. The investigators focused on cooling towers located on the east side of the city. Source: thespec.com
UK hospital, Aug. 2011
In August the UK's Health and Safety Executive, as well as the police, investigated a fatal case of Legionnaires' disease that occurred in a patient of an Essex hospital where three other patients died from Legionella infections in the last nine years. Three cases were identified at the hospital in 2010, one of which was fatal. The hospital said that it has been disinfecting and monitoring its plumbing system since the first case of Legionnaires' was identified there in 2002. Sources: basildonrecorder.co.uk and bbc.co.uk
Travelers to Italy, 17 cases, July-Aug. 2011
Seventeen cases of Legionnaires' disease were reported in travelers who stayed at two campsites and three hotels in Lazise, Italy between early July and the end of August. Their ages ranged from 42 to 78 years. Sixteen of the cases were confirmed by urinary antigen tests. None of the cases resulted in death. The cases were discovered through the European Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet).
Shredding plant workers, July 2011
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently investigated five cases of Legionnaires' Disease in workers at a shredding plant in upstate New York. The last of the five cases was identified in July. Legionella was found in water samples collected from several pools of standing water, in water dripping from the shredder (Water is used for cooling and lubrication in the shredders.), and on swabs of a conveyor belt. The investigators believed that standing water was the source of contamination. All the workers who were Legionella-positive worked around standing water or near a conveyor. The NIOSH report, dated July 22, 2011, recommended that all standing water be eliminated in the facility and on the grounds, that workers in the areas where cases occurred wear respirators, and that conveyors be disinfected with chlorine. Source: Times-Shamrock
Las Vegas hotel, July 2011Legionnaires' disease was reported in guests of a hotel on the Las Vegas strip this month. Health officials investigated the same hotel last year after reports of the disease. Legionella was found in the hot water system in several guest rooms.
Cleveland nursing home, 3 cases, June 2011
Three residents of a Cleveland nursing and rehab facility were hospitalized with Legionnaires' disease in June. The facility provided bottled drinking water and restricted showers until the water system was disinfected. Source: cleveland.com
New Zealand, 3 cases, April 2011 Three New Zealand men who worked near one another contracted Legionnaires' disease in April. Health officials focused their investigation on cooling towers. Source: radionz.co.nz
Hotel in Scotland, Mar. 2011
A hotel in Scotland closed its an indoor heated pool and spa and other "leisure club" facilities in March after employees and guests reported flu-like symptoms. One person was hospitalized with confirmed Legionnaires' disease. In all, 112 people contracted a flu-like illness with respiratory infection.
Playboy mansion, Feb. 2011
According to the Los Angeles County Health Department, about 200 people who attended a February 3rd fundraiser at the Playboy Mansion were infected by Legionella bacteria. Four of them contracted Legionnaires' disease; the rest had Pontiac fever, a flu-like illness that lasts about three days. News reports mentioned a fog machine at the event. [Pontiac fever has a much higher attack rate than does Legionnaires' disease, > 90% as opposed to < 5%, and a shorter incubation period, usually 6-48 hours as opposed to 2-14 days. -- mrf]
Ohio hospital, 4 cases, Feb. 2011 Four heart patients of a new hospital in Ohio were diagnosed with confirmed Legionnaires' disease this month, three of whom have been discharged. The hospital is investigating the plumbing system in its new patient tower, which began admitting patients in late December.
Eye clinic in UK, 3 cases, Jan. 2011 An outpatient eye clinic operated at a hospital in the UK was closed for the first three weeks of this year after a staff member and two of its patients were diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease. The results of the investigation were not reported. Source: Ealing Gazette
Hotels in Virgin Islands, March 2010-Aug 2011
It was announced in December that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked five Legionnaires' disease cases reported between March 2010 and August 2011 to two hotels in Saint Thomas. All five persons required hospitalization but recovered.

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